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Dyslexia & Dysgraphia Defined

As defined in TEC §38.003 (The Dyslexia Law):

"Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity.
“Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability. 

The International Dyslexia Association’s definition of dyslexia states: 

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

Dysgraphia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by illegible and/or inefficient handwriting due to difficulty with letter formation. This difficulty is the result of deficits in graphomotor function (hand movements used for writing) and/or storing and retrieving orthographic codes (letterforms) (Berninger, 2015). Secondary consequences may include problems with spelling and written expression. The difficulty is not solely due to lack of instruction and is not associated with other developmental or neurological conditions that involve motor impairment.

Dyscalculia is a term used to describe a learning disability in math. Students identified with dyscalculia may be eligible to receive special education services for a specific learning disability in math calculation and/or math problem-solving skills. Dyscalculia is not one of the dyslexia- related conditions identified in TEC §38.003(d)(1)-(2) (1995). However, dyscalculia can co-occur with dyslexia or other learning disabilities.